Tuesday, 23 May 2017

Winning Factors By Thailand Silat Athletes in 2015 Sea Games Singapore

Shapie, M.N.M. (1,2) & Nor Azam, M.Z. (1,3)
1.Fakulti Sains Sukan dan Rekreasi, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor.

Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate the winning factors of Thailand team in Pencak Silat during 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015. Three (3) matches were selected, Men’s Class D Quarter Final, Men’s Class D Semi Final, and Men’s Class D Final. Many techniques are used during this competition. For example punch, kick, topple, sweep, block and many more. These techniques has been chose to analyzed the performance of Thailand athletes. All the raw data collected from the all matches used the system produced by Shapie, M. M., Oliver, J., O’Donoghue, P., and Tong, R. (2013). The notational analysis was used to record all the selected outcomes to compliment this study such as hit target, hit elsewhere and miss opponent indicators.

Keywords: kicking, martial arts, coaching, performance analysis


Introduction

Silat is a term used to describe the martial arts forms practiced throughout the Malay Archipelago. It is also collective word for native’s martial arts that begins from Indonesia. The combination of the words Pencak and Silat into a compound word was made for the first time when an organization of the unity of Pencak schools and Silat schools in Indonesia was founded in Surakarta in 1948, which called Ikatan Pencak Silat Indonesia (The Indonesian Pencak Silat Association), abbreviated as IPSI (Kartomi, 2011). Silat is a fighting and survival art combination. According to Wilson (2003), silat is a form several factors such as education from a tradition, a self-defense, a spiritual and ritual components and now its establish as a sport around the world. Pencak Silat brings to light very different subjectivities, inter-subjectivities, and ways of objectifying the body in regional- and national-level practice (Wilson, 2009). In Malay dictionary, silat can be defined as a combination if art and intelligence to perform attack and defense with a beautiful form. The other source that defines silat is from the word of kilat (lightning) (Shamsuddin, 2005). Silat traditionally practiced in Southern Thailand, Singapore, Vietnam, Brunei, Philippines and also Malaysia. Plus, it has evolved on the African continent, Western countries, the United States and the Soviet countries. It is widely implemented in the form of art and sports competitions Silat is one of the sports included in the Southeast Asian Games (SEA Games) and other region-wide competitions. In Malaysia, silat is a combative art of Malay fighting arts.

According to Aziz, Tan, and Teh (2002) pencak silat is divide by two categories which are silat olahraga and silat seni (contact and artistic). In Silat Seni (artistic), the performer will give 3 minutes to perform an art or solo fighting. While in Silat Olahraga (contact), the motion can be characterized into 13 different of motion such as fake kick, fake punch, block and sweep, block and kick, block and punch, self-release, dodge, sweep, topple, catch, block, kick and punch (Shapie, M. N. M., Oliver, J., O’Donoghue, P., & Tong, R., 2013). Silat Olahraga is a popular combat sport, but less is known about the sports in terms of sport science of physiological demands and characteristics Shapie (2011).
PERSILAT (Persekutuan Pencak Silat Antarabangsa), which was established in Jakarta on March 1980 is the only international organization of Pencak Silat in the world. In Malaysia, PESAKA is the National Silat Federation and was founded by Silat Seni Gayong Malaysia, Silat Cekak Malaysia, Silat Lincah Malaysia and Seni Gayung Fatani Malaysia. PESAKA is the only Malaysian national Silat Olahraga sanctioned body. On the 23rd to 24th of September 1979, when the 14th SEA Games were held, Indonesian Pencak Silat Federation (IPSI) presented Silat Olahraga. The rules of competition have been sorted out in the year 1973. Other martial arts techniques were included such as karate, jujitsu in order to strengthen and improve the silat itself. The first Pencak Silat Olahraga competition which was held in Singapore at 1980. In 1982, the Pencak Silat competition introduced two new competitions which are Silat Seni and Silat Olahraga. The competition organizer changed the terms for the categories into Tunggal, Ganda, Regu and Tanding (Olahraga Pencak Silat/ Silat Olahraga). In order to standardize for the athletes and simplify the evaluation, the Tunggal (solo), Ganda (double) and Regu (triple) categories were standardized. The methods and markings of Tanding went back to the pencak silat technique. Southeast Asean Games (SEA Games) is a sport event between 11 countries of Southeast Asia which are Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam (Seneviratne, 1993). This event will be held every two year. There are three (3) rounds in total of fighting. Two (2) minutes for every round, with 1 minute rest between each round.

Material and Methods

Thailand is the team that are selected to be the sample or subject. The data analysis has been collected from 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015 Men’s Class D Quarter Final between Thailand and Singapore athlete, Men’s Class D Semi Final between Thailand and Indonesia athlete, and Men’s Class D Final between Thailand and Malaysia athlete. The source of match videos were found from Youtube. By watching these videos, the matches has been used to notated and analyzed in this study.
Every match consists of three (3) rounds in total of fighting. Two (2) minutes for every round, with 1 minute rest between each round. The outcome used is hit target, hit elsewhere and miss opponent. Hit target will be counted if the kick and topple is made hit the body pad or target. Hit elsewhere if the kick and topple is made hit the other part of body that not hit the target or body pad. Meanwhile the miss opponent will be counted when the kick or topple is made did not hit the opponent.

Match Analysis

The video were used to analyzed the 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015, Men’s Class D Quarter Final, Men’s Class D Semi Final, and Men’s Class D Final. Performance of the player was analyzed using a notational analysis which is all indicators were recorded manually through the video. The video were continual often to get the precise measurement of each offensive and defensive movement.

Motion Categories

According to Shapie, M. M., Oliver, J., O’Donoghue, P., and Tong, R. (2013), Silat exponent’s motions were coded into 14 different types of categories and were defined as follows:
Punch:
According to Latiff, (2012) the straight-punch and uppercut are the best techniques in Silat. The punch ‘tumbuk’ attack is done by a hand with a closed fist hitting the target. In silat punching is often used to fight the opponent. It can be a straight punch ‘tumbuk lurus’ or uppercut ‘sauk’ to the exponent body’s.
Kick:
The kick ‘tendang / terajang’ is an attacking movement which is performed with one leg or two legs simultaneously. A kick can be aimed at any target. It can be front kick ‘tendang depan’, side-kick ‘depak’ or semi-circular side kick ‘tendang lengkar’.
Block:
The blocking movements begin with the posture position ‘sikap pasang’: the exponent stands straight with his hands around his body or close to his chest. Blocking or parrying ‘tangkisan’ can be done using arms, elbows and legs with the purpose to block off or striking back at any attack.
Catch:
The catch ‘tangkapan’ is done by using the hand to obstruct the opponent from carrying out an attack. The silat exponent is able to prevent himself from being attacked by pointing the attack which he has caught to another direction. A catch which twists or drags the opponent is forbidden. Also, a catch which could break the part which is being held such as the leg and waist is also forbidden. These regulations exist to protect the silat exponent’s.
Topple:
There are various ways of toppling down one’s opponent. For example, a silat exponent ‘pesilat’ can either push, shove the opponent’s back leg from the bag or from the side, shove, hit, kick, strike or punch to make the opponent lose his balance. Every fall is considered valid as long as the silat exponent topples his opponent down without wrestling or he is able to overpower the opponent whom he has brought down.
Sweep:
Swiping ‘sapuan’ involves attacking an opponent’s leg which is on the ground to unstabilise him and bring down to the ground. A silat exponent can perform this attacking movement either with his right or left leg, Hence, front sweep ‘sapuan depan’ is done by swinging the leg to the front to push an opponent’s front leg, while back sweep ‘sapuan belakang’ is carried out by swinging the leg backward to hit the back leg.
Dodge:
The evade ‘elakan’ technique is carried out by silat exponent when he tries to evade an attack. This technique does not require the silat exponent to touch the opponent in fending off the attack. They are many ways of carrying out his defensive movement such as dodging ‘gelek’, retreat ‘mundur’, evasion to the side ‘elak sisi’, bending ‘elak serung’, jumping ‘lonjak’, ducking ‘susup’ and etc.
Self-Release:
Self-release ‘lepas tangkapan’ technique is a technique to unlock any clinch or catch from an opponent.
Block and Punch:
The blocking technique is used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent and followed by counter attack using the hand to punch the opponent.
Block and Kick:
The blocking technique is used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent and followed by counter attack using the leg to kick the opponent.
Block and Sweep:
The blocking technique is used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent and followed by counter attack using sweeping technique to the opponent.
Fake Punch:
An action which a silat exponent intends to confuse the opponent using a fake punch to break his opponent’s defensive posture.
Fake Kick:
An action which a silat exponent intends to confuse the opponent using a fake kick to break his opponent defensive posture.
Others:
Both silat exponents are either in posture position ‘sikap pasang’ or coming close to each other using silat step pattern ‘pola langkah’. All the activities are considered high intensity except for others which at that time both silat exponents are in low intensity periods.

Statistical Analysis

The observation generated data will be frequency counted, a method of recording in observational research in which the researcher records each occurrence clearly defined behavior within a certain time frame. All the raw data collected from all matches use the system produced by Shapie, M. M. et al. (2013). Statistical analysis and result was calculated using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 20. Independent T-Test was used to determine the performance data between winner and loser. The video is notated at least two times, and the data will be taken more accurate. The frequency was taken as data to be analyzed. The remark generated data will be regularity counted, and every round of data will be composed to be analyzed. All the raw data were exported into Microsoft Word and transferred into SPSS for further detailed analysis. Mean and standard deviation (SD) for all the markers has been computed to locate the measurable factors that separated winning and losing individual.

Result

Table 1 is the data that collected from watching the video. Table 2 is the analysis that taken out the mean and standard deviation selected performance indicator. The outcome used are hit target, hit elsewhere and miss opponent.

Match 1: Men’s Class D Quarter Final between Pornteb Poolkaew from Thailand (Red) and Abdul Raaziq Abdul Rashid from Singapore (Blue).
Action
Outcome
Hit elsewhere
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Not Available
Total
Block

4


4
Block and Kick




0
Block and Punch

1


1
Block and Sweep




0
Kick
20
12
20

52
Fake kick

1

2
3
Punch
5
19
18

42
Fake punch




0
Self-release

4


4
Topple

2
18

20
Sweep

1


1
Catch

6


6
Dodge

15


15
Others



11
11
Total
25
65
38
31
159
Table 1: The outcome that collected from the video in round 1 until round 3
                                                                   


Group
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
Score
THA
3
26.0000
23.43075
13.52775
SIN
3
22.6667
19.34770
11.17040
Table 2: The result after comparing both participants


Exponent
Hit Elsewhere
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Total
THA (RED)
11
53
11
75
SIN (BLUE)
14
12
45
71



Match 2: Men’s Class D Semi Final between Pornteb Poolkaew from Thailand (Blue) and Sapto Purnomo from Indonesia (Red).
Action
Outcome
Hit elsewhere
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Not Available
Total
Block

3


3
Block and Kick

1


1
Block and Punch
2
3


5
Block and Sweep




0
Kick
14
6
20

40
Fake kick

3


3
Punch
3
21
10

34
Fake punch

1


1
Self-release

2
1

3
Topple


8

8
Sweep
1
1


2
Catch

7


7
Dodge

5


5
Others



8
8
Total
20
53
39
8
120
Table 1: The outcome that collected from the video in round 1 until round 3

                                                       

Group
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
Score
THA
3
19.3333
16.28906
9.40449
INA
3
18.0000
7.93725
4.58258
Table 2: The result after comparing both participants


Exponent
Hit Elsewhere
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Total
THA (BLUE)
8
38
12
58
INA (RED)
12
15
27
54



Match 3: Men’s Class D Final between Pornteb Poolkaew from Thailand (Blue) and Muhammad Fahmi Romli from Malaysia (Red).
Action
Outcome
Hit elsewhere
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Not Available
Total
Block

4


4
Block and Kick




0
Block and Punch




0
Block and Sweep




0
Kick
12
12
10

34
Fake kick




0
Punch
6
10
15

31
Fake punch




0
Self-release

1
1

2
Topple

1
9

10
Sweep

1


1
Catch

3


3
Dodge

7


7
Others



6
6
Total
18
39
35
6
98
Table 1: The outcome that collected from the video in round 1 until round 3
  


Group
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
Score
THA
3
16.6667
9.45163
5.45690
MAS
3
14.0000
4.35890
2.51661
Table 2: The result after comparing both participants


Exponent
Hit Elsewhere
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Total
THA (BLUE)
6
20
24
50
MAS (RED)
12
19
11
42

Discussion

Based on the data collected and result, Thailand has won the Men’s Class D category. According to table 1, Thailand’s athlete gain most point from a punch hit target. From that, we can see Thailand’s athlete was high percentage on hit target, which means they are high in accuracy and get most successful from his attempt. The hit target accuracy from Thailand's athlete is higher compared to other outcomes. Furthermore, athlete from Thailand seems more aggressive with sharp technical and great tactical. Other than that, opponents from all three (3) matches has made lot of mistakes or unforced errors. This situation was gave huge probability and advantage for Thailand athlete. Pornteb Poolkaew from Thailand made more attack with high accuracy compared to his opponent. He created many chances with less mistakes. The data shows that level of fitness was tested for both exponents starting at the round 3. This can be proved by their action decreasing compare to round 1 and round 2. But in detail, Thailand athlete overcome quickly to dominated the match and next to win the match. That is the winning factor of Thailand athletes.

Conclusion

In conclusion, this study shows the differences between Thailand athletes compared to other opponents that might be the winning factor during Pencak Silat during 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015. From the observation, we can see that Thailand’s opponent was less in hit target or accuracy level in terms of attacking. Based on the video, all athletes shows good sportsmanship. This analyse showed that the correct and effective technical and tactical are the main factors to win the match. Plus, silat athlete must select the correct action depends on opponent’s weaknesses.

Recommendation

            It is recommended that both attacking and defensive skills should be balanced in their training programs. Attacks must be hit target to get the points, but at the same time they have to increase their blocking in order to avoid the opponents to get their points. The skills development for both attacking and blocking need to precise at time to time based on training programs periodization. Coaches must plays the important role and consider these things. Based on the result, the main factor to win the match is punching hit target, because it give opportunity to punch their opponent as much as they can to get one point for one punch. Meanwhile, the participant should reduce the punch hit elsewhere because no point given for that punch. For the sweep skill, in order to decrease missed target, the fighter need to focus, in good position and try to estimate opponent’s next movement. Topple that hit the target is so important because it gives extra points. So, the recommendation here is the fighter must keep improve their technical and tactical and maintaining the fitness in order to win the match.

References

Sport Singapore. (2015). Pencak Silat Tanding Men's Class D Quarter-Final Thailand vs Singapore; 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015. Retrieved at Mac 4, 2016 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QNdTkgLMeEI

Sport Singapore. (2015). Pencak Silat Tanding Men's Class D Semi-Final Thailand vs Indonesia; 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015. Retrieved at Mac 4, 2016 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=38l1L7K_Bf0

Sport Singapore. (2015). Pencak Silat Tanding Men's Class D Final Thailand vs Malaysia; 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015. Retrieved at Mac 4, 2016 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=euphyjgyOD4

Aziz, A. R., Tan, B., & Teh, K. C. (2002). Physiological responses during matches and profile of elite pencak silat exponents. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 1, 147-155.


Kartomi, M. (2011). Traditional and modern forms of pencak silat in indonesia: The suku mamak in riau. Musicology Australia, 33(1), 47-68. doi: 10.1080/08145857.2011.580716

Seneviratne, P. (1993). Golden moments: The sea games 1959-1991: P. Seneviratne.

Shamsuddin, S. (2005). The malay art of self-defense: Silat seni gayong: North Atlantic Books.


Latiff, Z. A. (2012b). Revisiting pencak silat: The malay martial arts in theatre practice and actor training. Asian Theatre Journal, 29(2), 379-401.

Shapie, M. M., Oliver, J., O’Donoghue, P., & Tong, R. (2013). Activity profile during action time in national silat competition. Journal of Combat Sports and Martial Arts., 1(2), 81-86.

Shapie, M. N. M. (2011). Influence of age and maturation on fitness development, trainability and competitive performance in youth silat. Cardiff Metropolitan University.  

Shapie, M. N. M., Oliver, J., O’Donoghue, P., & Tong, R. (2013). Activity profile during action time in national silat competition. Journal of Combat Sports and Martial Arts, 4(1), 75-79.

Wilson, I. D. (2003). The politics of inner power: The practice of pencak silat in west java. Murdoch University.  

Wilson, L. (2009). Jurus, jazz riffs and the constitution of a national martial art in indonesia. Body & Society, 15(3), 93-119. doi: 10.1177/1357034X09339103



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Winning Factors By Thailand Silat Athletes in 2015 Sea Games Singapore

Shapie, M.N.M.  (1,2) & Nor Azam, M.Z. (1,3) 1.Fakulti Sains Sukan dan Rekreasi, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor...